International Journal on Integrated Education https://journals.researchparks.org/index.php/IJIE <p style="text-align: justify;">International Journal on Integrated Education (IJIE) is a peer-reviewed, open-access scholarly journal, publishing high-quality manuscripts in forms of original research articles, review articles, book reviews, case reports, and discussions to answer important and interesting questions, develop or test a theory, replicate prior studies, explore interesting phenomena, review and synthesize existing research and provide new perspectives aimed at stimulating future theory development and empirical research related to education, integration, social sciences, humanities, language, literature, philosophy, and philology.</p> Research Parks Publishing LLC en-US International Journal on Integrated Education 2615-3785 <p>In submitting the manuscript to the <strong>International Journal on Integrated Education (IJIE)</strong>, the authors certify that:</p> <ul> <li>They are authorized by their co-authors to enter into these arrangements.</li> <li style="text-align: justify;">The work described has not been formally published before, except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture, review, thesis, or overlay journal.</li> <li>That it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere,</li> <li style="text-align: justify;">The publication has been approved by the author(s) and by responsible authorities – tacitly or explicitly – of the institutes where the work has been carried out.</li> <li>They secure the right to reproduce any material that has already been published or copyrighted elsewhere.</li> <li>They agree to the following license and copyright agreement.</li> </ul> <p><strong>License and Copyright Agreement</strong></p> <p>Authors who publish with <strong>International Journal on Integrated Education (IJIE)</strong>&nbsp;agree to the following terms:</p> <ul> <li style="text-align: justify;">Authors retain copyright and grant the <strong>International Journal on Integrated Education (IJIE)</strong>&nbsp;right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under <strong>Creative Commons Attribution License</strong> <strong><a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">(CC BY 4.0)</a></strong> that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li> <li style="text-align: justify;">Authors can enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the <strong>International Journal on Integrated Education (IJIE)</strong>&nbsp;published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or edit it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.</li> <li style="text-align: justify;">Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) before and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.</li> </ul> ADDRESSING TEACHING AND LEARNING CHALLENGES AMIDST THE COVID 19 PANDEMIC: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE NIGERIA PRIMARY SCHOOLS https://journals.researchparks.org/index.php/IJIE/article/view/1094 <p><em>The disruption of teaching and learning, and the subsequent closure of educational institutions in most countries of the world amidst the Covid-19 pandemic is worrisome. This has especially brought to the fore the inadequacies in the Nigerian educational systems and structures, especially in primary schools. This paper focused on the need for urgent adoption and application of e-learning in the Nigeria primary schools. First, the paper critically scrutinized the emergence and impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on the educational systems. Second, the paper discussed the essence of e-learning along with the ten recommendations for teachers’ and learners’ engagement in e-learning as prescribed by UNESCO (2020). The paper further discussed the Challenges confronting effective teaching and learning in primary schools amidst the pandemic. Finally, to better the teaching and learning status in Nigeria primary schools, the paper implied amongst others; that government and education stakeholders should as a matter of urgency; fund the development and training of teachers and learners in computer and ICT knowledge, equip primary schools with ICT facilities and sponsor television and radio e-learning classes for pupils’ home learning</em></p> Osiesi Mensah Prince Copyright (c) 2021 Osiesi Mensah Prince https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-01-03 2021-01-03 4 1 1 7 10.31149/ijie.v4i1.1094 THE VITAL ROLE OF INTERNET OF THINGS AMIDST COVID-19 https://journals.researchparks.org/index.php/IJIE/article/view/1095 <p>The role of the technology plays a vital role amidst the COVID-19 because of the following quarantine protocol set by the Inter-Agency Task Force (IATF) on COVID-19 like Social Distancing, wearing of face mask and face shield and usage of automated thermal scanner</p> Ambassador Dr. Froilan D. Mobo Copyright (c) 2021 Ambassador Dr. Froilan D. Mobo https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-01-03 2021-01-03 4 1 8 9 10.31149/ijie.v4i1.1095 PERCEIVED EASE OF USE AND USEFULNESS AS CORRELATES OF ELECTRONIC DATABASES USAGE BY UNIVERSITY LECTURERS IN SOUTH-WEST, NIGERIA https://journals.researchparks.org/index.php/IJIE/article/view/1092 <p>The study examined the perceived ease of use and usefulness as correlates of electronic databases usage by university lecturers in South-west, Nigeria. Specifically, the study sought to identify the perceived usefulness of electronic databases usage by university lecturers in South-west, Nigeria; and also investigated the perceived ease of use and usefulness of electronic databases by university lecturers in South-west, Nigeria. The study adopted descriptive research design of the correlational type. The population comprised 10,452 lecturers in public universities in South-west, Nigeria, out of which a sample size of 836 was selected through a multi-stage sampling procedure across twelve universities. Questionnaire was the instrument used for data collection. Data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics at 0.05 level of significance. The findings revealed that the use of electronic databases by university lecturers in South-west, Nigeria enhanced quality of their research (mean= 4.59), enhanced quality of their teaching (mean=4.27), and assisted in writing proposals for research grants (mean=3.97). University lecturers in South-west, Nigeria also had positive perception on the ease of use of electronic databases (mean = 3.47). It was concluded from the study that university lecturers in South-west, Nigeria reflected positive attitude towards the utilization of electronic databases for teaching and research. It was therefore recommended that University libraries should regularly organize training for lecturers on the use of available electronic databases.</p> Kennedy Eiriemiokhale Adetoun Idowu Copyright (c) 2021 Kennedy Eiriemiokhale, Adetoun Idowu https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-01-03 2021-01-03 4 1 10 20 10.31149/ijie.v4i1.1092 THE UTILIZATION OF CONTEXTUALIZED LEARNING ACTIVITIES IN DEVELOPING THE STUDENTS RESEARCH AND ICT CAPABILITIES https://journals.researchparks.org/index.php/IJIE/article/view/1099 <p>This study recognizes and examine the utilization of contextualized learning activities to develop students research skills and ICT capabilities of senior high school particularly Grade 11 and 12. Contextualization of activities widen the view and perspective of students with the help of ICT to develop the traditional pedagogical model of knowledge into active, collaborative and autonomous learning. The application of technology specifically ICT plays a vital role in motivating and encourage students to be more engage in different activities. The results shows that most of the participants placed moderate 43.5% to high importance 40% on having an internet that could support collaborative grant writing. Most of the participants attributed high importance to learning to interact with the online learning management system. Most of the participants agreed that social media should being more actively utilized for diverse activities for academic and research purposes</p> Alvin Fuertes Imelda S. Follosco Copyright (c) 2021 Alvin Fuertes, Imelda S. Follosco https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-01-06 2021-01-06 4 1 21 35 10.31149/ijie.v4i1.1099 THE ROLE OF OUR RELIGIOUS AND SPIRITUAL HERITAGE IN THE FORMATION OF A SENSE OF PROUD IN YOUNG PEOPLE https://journals.researchparks.org/index.php/IJIE/article/view/1109 <p><em>The richness of religious monuments in our country, the fact that Islam is one of the most developed regions in the world, allows to successfully develop religious tourism. This article highlights the ancient past of our people and the role of national spiritual values in the lives of young people</em></p> Yuldasheva Saodat Mamasakhatovna Allanazarova Mohira Bakhtiyor qizi Copyright (c) 2021 Yuldasheva Saodat Mamasakhatovna, Allanazarova Mohira Bakhtiyor qizi https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-01-07 2021-01-07 4 1 36 38 10.31149/ijie.v4i1.1109 PEDAGOGICAL TACT ENSURES THE QUALITY OF EDUCATION https://journals.researchparks.org/index.php/IJIE/article/view/1110 <p><em>The technology of "optimal steps" for the implementation of pedagogical tact, which is one of the key factors in ensuring the quality of education is discussed in this article. At the same time, the teacher identifies the pedagogical problem, assesses the difficulties expressed in the pedagogical process, forms a real pedagogical goal, sets criteria for personal success in pedagogical activity, collects and analyzes pedagogical information, defines and improves the order of practical actions, provides access to acme. The conditions of application and guidelines for their practical application are described</em></p> A.I.Inatov Copyright (c) 2021 A.I.Inatov https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-01-07 2021-01-07 4 1 39 41 10.31149/ijie.v4i1.1110 MEDIA DISCOURSE IN THE LENS OF TRANSITIVITY ANALYSIS https://journals.researchparks.org/index.php/IJIE/article/view/1113 <p><em>The present study critically scrutinizes the ideological constructions and discursive features used in Pakistani print media representing economical phenomenon of CPEC. This research has elucidated the ideology throughframework for critical discourse analysis (CDA) by applying it to the print media news articles and comparing two different Pakistani English newspapers (Fairclough, 2013). The articles on CPEC, the most prevailing economic variable in Pakistan which appeared in the daily ‘Dawn’ and ‘THE NEWS’ newspapers during the year 2016-17 have been selected for the study. Transitivity analysis as an analytical tool has been applied for the analysis of articles that includes the analysis of process type. The findings indicate that economical subject of national worth is presented with the same ideology in different newspapers. The study is significant in its originality as it is interdisciplinary study and its findings are not in line with the existing literature on media conflict</em></p> Ms.AfsheenEkhteyar Dr.Tariq Umrani Copyright (c) 2021 Ms.AfsheenEkhteyar, Dr.Tariq Umrani https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-01-08 2021-01-08 4 1 42 46 10.31149/ijie.v4i1.1113 MEDIA DISCOURSE IN THE LENS OF TRANSITIVITY ANALYSIS https://journals.researchparks.org/index.php/IJIE/article/view/1114 <p><em>This study aimed at analysing the implementation of marketing strategies in Academic Libraries in Developing Countries in the era of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs). The objectives of the study were to; identify the marketing strategies implemented by academic libraries in Cameroon, determine the efficiency of marketing strategies implemented by academic libraries and to investigate the challenges faced by academic libraries in marketing their services. The study used elements from the Marketing Communication Mix Theory and employed an exploratory research design. Data were collected using an interview guide which was validated by subject experts in the information and marketing professions. Participants were selected from 2 Academic Libraries in Fako Division of the South West Region of Cameroon. Data collected were analysed thematically. The findings indicated that several electronic and non-electronic marketing strategies are used by these libraries, but these are inefficient and there is need for exploitation of more technological means of marketing. One of the recommendations of this study was that current Information and Communication Technology trends be adopted in marketing of academic libraries and that working documents be implemented in an all-inclusive manner to include staff at the operational, tactical and strategic levels who should be well trained to survive in the electronic environment</em></p> Ms.AfsheenEkhteyar Dr.Tariq Umrani Copyright (c) 2021 Ms.AfsheenEkhteyar, Dr.Tariq Umrani, Dr.Tariq Umrani https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-01-08 2021-01-08 4 1 47 55 10.31149/ijie.v4i1.1114 RELATIVE CONTRIBUTION OF SOCIAL MEDIA PLATFORMS ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS OF THE HIGHER TECHNICAL TEACHER TRAINING COLLEGE (HTTTC) BAMBILI-THE UNIVERSITY OF BAMENDA https://journals.researchparks.org/index.php/IJIE/article/view/1115 <p>The main purpose of this study was to determine the relative contribution of social media platforms on students’ academic performance in the HTTTC Bambili of the University of Bamenda. A mixed research design constituting of the survey and the correlational research designs were used. The Taro Yamane formula was used to obtain a sample size of 222 respondents, drawn from a target population of 500 HTTTC students. Simple random sampling technique was used in selecting the students. A questionnaire whose validity was established and whose reliability was determined using the Cronbach alpha reliability was used in collecting relevant data. The research questions were answered using the Pearson product moment correlation coefficient (r) and the coefficient of determination (r2), while the hypotheses were tested at the 0.05 level of significance using the p-values for correlation. The findings revealed among other things that 52.4% of the variations in students’ academic performance can be accounted for by their usage of social media platforms. It was therefore recommended among other things that The University of Bamenda should assist parents to provide learners with electronic gadgets such as android phones, laptops, desktops, palmtops, Ipad, gadgets that will help learners to access information for academic purposes on social media platforms</p> Beyoh Dieudone Nkepah (PhD) Ambei Moses Chu (PhD) Copyright (c) 2021 Beyoh Dieudone Nkepah (PhD), Ambei Moses Chu (PhD) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-01-08 2021-01-08 4 1 56 66 10.31149/ijie.v4i1.1115 ORGANIZATION OF THE INDEPENDENT WORK OF STUDENTS OF HIGHER EDUCATION USING THE WEB-QUEST METHOD https://journals.researchparks.org/index.php/IJIE/article/view/1120 <p>This article is devoted to the actual problem of using information and communication technologies in the organization of independent educational activities of university students. The article considers the issues of using a web quest as a form of organizing independent work, which serves to form creative cognitive activity and independence of students, skills of analysis, synthesis and critical assessment. The development technology and the most common forms of a web quest are given</p> Sattarov A. R. Copyright (c) 2021 Sattarov A. R. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-01-09 2021-01-09 4 1 67 71 10.31149/ijie.v4i1.1120 FEATURES OF FORMING A VIRTUAL PERSONALITY OF AN INTERNET USER https://journals.researchparks.org/index.php/IJIE/article/view/1122 <p class="Default" style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-size: 11.0pt;">The article refers to the process of forming a virtual identity. Virtual identity is defined as the desired image of a subject that has no physical representation but is a personality self-presentation in the Internet space, through which he establishes his ties with a virtual environment and extends its social experience. The author examines the changing social experience during the formation of virtual personality, including: language, personal meanings, theoretical and empirical knowledge. As the main characteristics of the individual author defines virtual virtuality, focus, involvement in the Internet space</span></p> Niyazova Naima Abdullajonovna Copyright (c) 2021 Niyazova Naima Abdullajonovna https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-01-09 2021-01-09 4 1 72 75 10.31149/ijie.v4i1.1122 ASPECTS OF TEACHING FOREIGN LANGUAGES AT A TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY https://journals.researchparks.org/index.php/IJIE/article/view/1123 <p class="Default" style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-size: 11.0pt;">In this article we will try to consider some methodological principles and features of teaching a foreign language in a technical university, based on the criteria for the development of professional competence. </span></p> <p class="Default" style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-size: 11.0pt;">The emergence of the concept of competency-based approach - the "competence-based approach" in European higher education entailed a reassessment of the teaching methodology, including teaching a foreign language. The main goals and objectives of the new methodological approach in education were determined by the Commission “Pan-European Format of Foreign Language Proficiency: Training, Teaching, Level Assessment”</span></p> Sokinaxon Xamraxonova Jo’raxonovna Copyright (c) 2021 Sokinaxon Xamraxonova Jo’raxonovna https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-01-09 2021-01-09 4 1 76 78 10.31149/ijie.v4i1.1123 TEACHERS’ PROFESSIONAL COMPETENCE LEVEL IN THE IMPLEMENTATION OF SOCIAL ADAPTATION OF VISUALLY IMPAIRED YOUNG GRADUATES https://journals.researchparks.org/index.php/IJIE/article/view/1127 <p>This article scientifically substantiates that the educators professionalism in the blind youth adaptation to social life depends on their knowledge, skills and abilities. It is said that the educators role is invaluable in ensuring that every young person has a place in independent life, builds an independent family and works on an equal footing with healthy young people</p> Kholikov Azamat Kahramonovich Copyright (c) 2021 Kholikov Azamat Kahramonovich https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-01-15 2021-01-15 4 1 79 82 10.31149/ijie.v4i1.1127 THE PRACTICE OF MARKETING ACADEMIC LIBRARIES OF DEVELOPING COUNTRIES IN THE ERA OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES (ICTS) https://journals.researchparks.org/index.php/IJIE/article/view/1128 <p>This study aimed at analysing the implementation of marketing strategies in Academic Libraries in Developing Countries in the era of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs). The objectives of the study were to; identify the marketing strategies implemented by academic libraries in Cameroon, determine the efficiency of marketing strategies implemented by academic libraries and to investigate the challenges faced by academic libraries in marketing their services. The study used elements from the Marketing Communication Mix Theory and employed an exploratory research design. Data were collected using an interview guide which was validated by subject experts in the information and marketing professions. Participants were selected from 2 Academic Libraries in Fako Division of the South West Region of Cameroon. Data collected were analysed thematically. The findings indicated that several electronic and non-electronic marketing strategies are used by these libraries, but these are inefficient and there is need for exploitation of more technological means of marketing. One of the recommendations of this study was that current Information and Communication Technology trends be adopted in marketing of academic libraries and that working documents be implemented in an all-inclusive manner to include staff at the operational, tactical and strategic levels who should be well trained to survive in the electronic environment</p> Rosemary M. Shafack Copyright (c) 2021 Rosemary M. Shafack https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-01-15 2021-01-15 4 1 83 91 10.31149/ijie.v4i1.1128 The role of an innovative learning environment in enhancing the professional competence of a specialty teacher https://journals.researchparks.org/index.php/IJIE/article/view/1136 <p>The role of an innovative learning environment in enhancing the professional competence of a specialty teacher. What is an innovative learning environment? The main stages of the formation of an innovative educational environment in higher education. Features of management, pedagogical, material and technical innovative approaches</p> Shаkhlo Sharipova Sadullayevna Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal on Integrated Education (IJIE); Shаkhlo Sharipova Sadullayevna https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-01-21 2021-01-21 4 1 92 95 10.31149/ijie.v4i1.1136 Narratological analysis of temporality in novel https://journals.researchparks.org/index.php/IJIE/article/view/1137 <p>This paper definitely attempts to intermingle them with regard to structural analysis. It adopted the theory of Gerard Genette, the analysis of the famous novel Great Expectations by Charles Dickens, the main discussion concerns order and duration whereas frequency is ruled out. Consequently, order can be presented by two different narrative techniques; through the profound analysis of analepsis and prolepsis to show the chronological and anachronological order of the novel.. A further analysis of the novel also includes the alternation of the four narrative movements of duration which are divided into techniques of deceleration; descriptive pause and scene whereas techniques of accelerations; ellipsis and summary. The diagrams and tables of the study aim to reach semi-statistical deduction for the chronological techniques of anachronism and its effect on the structure of the narrative time of the novel as whole, which gives a general idea about the system of the time in novel</p> Nasr M. A. Abdulrraziq Ayman E. M. Geedallah Copyright (c) 2021 Nasr M. A. Abdulrraziq, Ayman E. M. Geedallah https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-01-21 2021-01-21 4 1 96 101 10.31149/ijie.v4i1.1137 Methodology for determining costs for environmental actions in land management https://journals.researchparks.org/index.php/IJIE/article/view/1138 <p>This article addresses the issues of the methodology for determining the costs of environmental measures in land management. The article specifies a mathematical model for determining the costs of environmental protection; calculating factors such as determining the volumes of the main types of harmful substances of harmful emissions and other factors such as the quality of the composition of water and capital costs during water treatment. Mathematic model could be used in process of planning buildings and land management to forecasts future spending. The main point of this work is the determination of water pollution in the water supply process and how much this factor affects the reclamation state of the soil</p> Khafizova Zulfiya Kholmuratovna Copyright (c) 2021 Khafizova Zulfiya Kholmuratovna https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-01-21 2021-01-21 4 1 102 104 10.31149/ijie.v4i1.1138 Adoption of web-based reference services by private university libraries in kwara state, nigeria https://journals.researchparks.org/index.php/IJIE/article/view/1139 <p>This study investigated the adoption of web-based reference services by private university libraries in Kwara State, Nigeria. The objectives of the study were to: (i). identify the benefits of web-based reference services in private university libraries in Kwara Sate; (ii). ascertain the extent of adoption of web based reference services by private university libraries in Kwara Sate; (iii) identify the nature of web-based reference services adopted by private university libraries in Kwara Sate; and (iv) investigate the problems affecting the use of web based reference services in private university libraries in Kwara Sate. The study adopted descriptive survey research design. The population of the study comprised 5,138 registered library users of Al-Hikmah University Library, Ilorin and Landmark University Library, Omu-Aran, Kwara state. A sample size of 348 users was selected using proportional sampling technique. Questionnaire was used as instrument for data collection. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The findings of this study revealed that library users derive numerous benefits from the use of web-based reference services. The finding also revealed that private university libraries in Kwara State have adopted web-based reference services to a high extent. It further revealed that technical problems, Internet network problem, lack of co-operation and coordination on both parts of users and staff and late answer to questions were the major problems affecting the use of web-based reference service. The study recommended that library management should address all constraints affecting the use of web-based reference services</p> Kennedy Arebamen Eiriemiokhale Mosunmade Opeoluwa Oloruntola Stanley Omondiale Unuabor Mohammed Dolapo Abdulrasheed Copyright (c) 2021 Kennedy Arebamen Eiriemiokhale, Mosunmade Opeoluwa Oloruntola, Stanley Omondiale Unuabor, Mohammed Dolapo Abdulrasheed https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-01-21 2021-01-21 4 1 105 113 10.31149/ijie.v4i1.1139 Meat productivity of single camels and their hybrids in the conditions of karakalpakstan https://journals.researchparks.org/index.php/IJIE/article/view/1140 <p><em>The article gives information about the results of a study of the meat productivity of dromedary camels in the Republic of Karakalpakstan and also a study of the slaughter yield of the carcass, the mass of the steamed carcass, the mass of the hump to the ratio of live weight, the yield of internal fat. The conclusion about meat productivity depending on the age of animals is provided</em></p> Turganbaev.R.U.Turganbaev.R.U. Tleumuratov A.K. Copyright (c) 2021 Turganbaev.R.U.Turganbaev.R.U., Tleumuratov A.K. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-01-21 2021-01-21 4 1 114 117 10.31149/ijie.v4i1.1140 Needs analysis in technology education programme: purposes and procedures in curriculum development in nigeria https://journals.researchparks.org/index.php/IJIE/article/view/1141 <p>The paper focus on needs analysis in technology education: Purposes and procedures in curriculum development in Nigeria. It examines the term technology education in Nigeria, needs analysis in curriculum development, the purposes of needs analysis in curriculum development, procedures for conducting needs analysis and needs analysis in technology education. The paper revealed that, needs analysis in technology education is faced with ethical challenge of not being fair and ethical about needs analysis approach used in data collection, the temptation of being partial by researchers and curriculum developers have ignored the use of systematic and comprehensive needs analysis and rely on their own recollections of the occupational area or recollections of panel of experts. The paper concluded that, needs analysis in technology education in Nigeria is faced with challenges both from researchers and curriculum developers ends. Therefore, the paper recommended among others that, researchers in technology education should be fair and ethical about needs analysis approach in data collection and curriculum developers in technology education should adhere to the use of systematic and comprehensive needs analysis in curriculum development processes</p> Arah, A. S. Copyright (c) 2021 Arah, A. S. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-01-21 2021-01-21 4 1 118 122 10.31149/ijie.v4i1.1141 Types of pottery equipments and technology of their production https://journals.researchparks.org/index.php/IJIE/article/view/1143 <p>&nbsp;This article provides a brief overview of the Khorezmian ceramics and discusses the technology of the pottery. The peculiarities of pottery are also introduced</p> Ibadullaeva Nigora Egamberganovna Niyazov Kamoladdin Sitmamatovich Karimov Hamid Atakhanovich Ibadullaev Sobirjon Egamberganovich Begnazarov Shamshir Marimbayevich Copyright (c) 2021 Ibadullaeva Nigora Egamberganovna, Niyazov Kamoladdin Sitmamatovich, Karimov Hamid Atakhanovich, Ibadullaev Sobirjon Egamberganovich, Begnazarov Shamshir Marimbayevich https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-01-23 2021-01-23 4 1 123 125 10.31149/ijie.v4i1.1143 Ethnographisms denoting children's games https://journals.researchparks.org/index.php/IJIE/article/view/1144 <p>This article provides information on the ethnographisms of words specific to children's games in the lexicon of the population of the Aral Sea region formed in ethnolinguistic conditions</p> A. S. Oybek Nurjanov Copyright (c) 2021 A. S. Oybek Nurjanov https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-01-23 2021-01-23 4 1 126 128 10.31149/ijie.v4i1.1144 Morphological and semantic analysis of word combinations https://journals.researchparks.org/index.php/IJIE/article/view/1145 <p>This paper makes analyses of the morphological and semantic analysis of word combinations. On this case, research has been pinpointed in order to make better investigation of word combination. Outcomes and shortcomings of the morphological and semantic analysis of word combinations were investigated by different methods. Finally, examples and analyses were concluded and recommendations were suggested for the further research</p> Arah, A. S. Dilnavoz Toshnazarova Olimovna Copyright (c) 2021 Arah, A. S. Dilnavoz Toshnazarova Olimovna https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-01-23 2021-01-23 4 1 129 134 10.31149/ijie.v4i1.1145 National ideas - trust and faith of the people https://journals.researchparks.org/index.php/IJIE/article/view/1146 <p>In order to fully understand the essence of the idea of national independence and its place in the life of the nation, it is first of all theoretical and practical to determine the basis on which it is based. Because today, in connection with the introduction of the subject "The idea of national independence: basic concepts and principles" in the education system, there are attempts to give it priority over the national idea</p> Nurullaeva Nodira Kadamovna Copyright (c) 2021 Nurullaeva Nodira Kadamovna https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-01-23 2021-01-23 4 1 135 138 10.31149/ijie.v4i1.1146 A comparative- typological classification of archaic words in english and uzbek https://journals.researchparks.org/index.php/IJIE/article/view/1147 <p class="Default" style="text-align: justify;"><em><span style="font-size: 11.0pt;">This study recommends a comparative-typological classification to categorize archaic words according to their semantic functions. Through this study, we clarify the pragmatic content of three related terms archaic words, historical words and anachronisms in terms of their similarities and differences. Moreover, we provide detailed explanation of archaic words existed in English and Uzbek languages. Mainly, through this study, we propose a revision of the semantical classification of archaic words to simplify their typology. This framework is conducted based on the other classifications of the archaic words. Existing categorizations of archaic words refer to lexical and grammatical categories that are referential in function, with the additional categories of phonetic and derivational archaic words. We suggest bringing semantic categories of archaic words, such as medical archaisms, occupational archaisms, zooarchaisms, phytoarchaisms, topoarchaisms and hydroarchaisms.</span></em></p> Madiyorova Valida Quvondiq qizi Copyright (c) 2021 Madiyorova Valida Quvondiq qizi https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-01-23 2021-01-23 4 1 139 144 10.31149/ijie.v4i1.1147 Reflection of the views on scientific thought in the oriental spiritual heritage https://journals.researchparks.org/index.php/IJIE/article/view/1148 <p class="Default" style="margin-bottom: 2.95pt; text-align: justify;"><span style="font-size: 11.0pt;">This paper makes analyses of the reflection of the views on scientific thought in the oriental spiritual heritage. On this case, research has been pinpointed on both methodological and theoretical views of the scientific thought in the oriental spiritual heritage. In conclusion, research has been underlined with outcomes and shortcomings of the various analytical views of the analyses of the reflection of the views on scientific thought in the oriental spiritual heritage</span></p> Rajabboev Jurabek Jumanazar ogli Copyright (c) 2021 Rajabboev Jurabek Jumanazar ogli https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-01-23 2021-01-23 4 1 145 146 10.31149/ijie.v4i1.1148 Developing resilience in times of emergencies among youths in cameroon https://journals.researchparks.org/index.php/IJIE/article/view/1149 <p><em>The Anglophone crisis in 2016 and the outbreak of the COVID-19 global health emergency in March 2020, in Cameroon have tremendous effects on the entire population in Cameroon and the world at large. Both emergencies and its economic and social impacts have disrupted nearly all aspects of life for all groups in society especially the youths. People of different ages, however, are experiencing its effects in different ways. For young people and especially for vulnerable youth, the Anglophone crisis and COVID-19 crisis poses considerable risks in the fields of education, employment, mental health and disposable income. Moreover, while youth and future generations will shoulder much of the long-term economic and social consequences of the crisis, their well-being may be superseded by short-term economic and equity considerations. In this light, this paper focuses on developing resilience in times of emergencies among young people in Cameroon as well as creating resilient communities so as to avoid exacerbating intergenerational inequalities and to involve young people in building societal resilience. Governments need to anticipate the impact of mitigation and recovery measures across different age groups, by applying effective governance mechanisms and policies in order to help youths to be able to overcome and bounce back in times of emergencies. This paper, therefore addresses two emergency situation within the Cameroonian context (the Anglophone crisis and the COVID-19 pandemic) vis a vis its impact on education and health of youths. It continues by examining Resilience, risk reduction and sustainable development, building resilient communities in times of emergencies, technologies for building the resilience of communities and key policy messages</em></p> Asangha Ngufor Muki Copyright (c) 2021 Asangha Ngufor Muki https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-01-23 2021-01-23 4 1 147 153 10.31149/ijie.v4i1.1149