Main Article Content


The objective of the present study was to determine effect of dietary supplementation of Rauvolfia vomitoria root extract (RVME) as a phytogenic feed additive in growing rabbit diets: haematology and serum biochemical indices. Thirty (30) weaned rabbits of mixed breed and sex between 6-7 weeks with an average weight of 530.9 and 533.0 grams were divided into five treatments with three replicates per treatment consisting of 2 rabbits per replicate in a completely randomized design. Rabbits in treatment 1 (T1) were fed basal diet with 0 % RVME while T2, T3, T4 and T5 were given RVME at 20 ml, 40ml, 60 ml, and 80 ml/litre of water respectively. The experiment lasted for 12 weeks; food and water were provided ad libitum and all other management were strictly observed. Data collected were used to evaluate the some haematological and serum biochemical indices of animals. Haematological parameters covered pack cell volume (PCV), haemoglobin (Hb), red blood cell (RBC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), white blood cell (WBC) and its differentials while serum analysis contained total protein (Tp), globulin, albumin, creatinine, urea, calcium, phosphorus, sodium, chloride, aspartate serum aminotransferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT) and alanine phosphatase (ALP). All the haematological parameters were significantly (P ˂0.05) different among the treatment. Creatinine, urea and chloride ions not influenced by the dietary treatments (P > 0.05) while the other serum biochemical parameters were significantly (P ˂0.05) affected by RVME. Increasing the level of RVME from 20 ml to 80 ml tended to reduce ALP, AST and ALT values. It was concluded that feeding rabbits RVME at 80 ml/ liter did not cause any negative effect on the health of the animals; the data revealed that all values were within the physiological reference range for rabbits


Rabbits Rauvolfia vomitoria root performance haematology

Article Details

How to Cite
Adewale, A.O, Alagbe, J.O, & Adeoye, Adekemi Grace. (2021). Dietary Supplementation of Rauvolfia Vomitoria Root extract as a Phytogenic Feed additive in Growing Rabbit diets: Haematology and Serum Biochemical Indices. International Journal on Orange Technologies, 3(3), 31-42.


  1. Onuegbu N. C. and Iwu C. A. (2020). Physical and Nutritional Properties of Coula edulis. International Journal of Life Sciences. 9(3): 46-55.
  2. Aduku, A. O. and Olukosi, J. O. (1990) Rabbit Management in the Tropics: Production Processing, Utilization, Marketing, Future Prospects. Abuja, Nigeria Living Books services
  3. Fielding, D. (1991). Rabbits. The Tropical Agriculturist CTA Macmillan Publishers.
  4. Niyi, A. (1997). Prospects of Commercial Rabbit Keeping in Nigeria Livestock Echo April- June Pp. 51-54.
  5. NRC, (1977) Nutrient Requirement of Domestic Animal, Nutrient Requirement of Rabbits. Second Edition National Academy of Science Washington D.C.
  6. Champe, K. A. and Maurice, D. V. (1983). Research Review Response Early Weaned Rabbit to Source and Level of Dietary Fibre. The Journal of Appl. Rabbit Research 6(2) 64-67.
  7. Alagbe, J.O. (2019). Performance and haemato-biochemical parameters of weaner rabbits fed diets supplemented with dried water melon (rind) meal. Journal of Dairy and Veterinary Sciences. 8(4):001-007.
  8. Gillespie, J. R. (1992). Rabbit Raising in Modern Livestock and Poultry Production.
  9. Gillespie, J. R. (1998). “Rabbit Raising” Animal Science. Demar Publisher Pp. 1018-1041.
  10. Fasola, T.R., Adeyemo, F.A., Adeniji, J.A and Okonko, I.O. (2011). Antiviral potentials of Enantia chlorantha extracts on Yellow fever virus. Nature and Science, 9(9): 99-101.
  11. Alagbe, J.O and Adegbite Motunrade Betty (2019). Haematological and serum biochemical indices of starter broiler chicks fed aqueous extract of Balanites aegyptiaca and Alchornea cordifolia bark mixture. International Journal of Biological, Physical and Chemical Studies. 1(1): 8-15
  12. Musa, B., Alagbe, J.O., Adegbite Motunrade Betty, Omokore, E.A. (2020). Growth performance, caeca microbial population and immune response of broiler chicks fed aqueous extract of Balanites aegyptiaca and Alchornea cordifolia stem bark mixture. United Journal for Research and Technology, 2(2):13-21.
  13. Alagbe, J.O and Oluwafemi, R.A. (2019). Hematology and serum biochemical indices of growing rabbits fed diet supplemented with different levels of Indigofera zollingeriana leaf meal. Progress in Chemical and Biochemical Research. 2(4): 170-177.
  14. Kundan, P. (2017). HPLC analysis of amino acid and antioxidant composition of three medicinal plants of (Pithoragarh) Uttarakhand Himalayas. Journal of Analytical and Pharmaceutical Research, 6(5):1-8.
  15. Alagbe, J.O (2020). Chemical evaluation of proximate, vitamin and amino acid profile of leaf, stem bark and roots of Indigofera tinctoria. International Journal on Integrated Education. 3(10): 150-157.
  16. Chineke, C. A., Ologun, A. G., & Ikeobi, C. O. N. (2006). Haematological parameters in rabbit breeds and crosses in humid tropics. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 9(11), 2102-2106.
  17. Isaac, L. J., Abah, G., Akpan, B and Ekaette, I. U. (2013). Haematological properties of different breeds and sexes of rabbits (p.24-27). Proceedings of the 18th Annual Conference of Animal Science Association of Nigeria
  18. Soetan KO, Akinrinde AS and Ajibade TO (2013) Preliminary studies on the haematological parameters of cockerels fed raw and processed guinea corn (Sorghum bicolor). Proceedings of 38th Annual Conference of Nigerian Society for Animal Production. River State University of Science and Technology 49-52.
  19. Aster, J. C. (2004). Anaemia of diminished erythropoiesis. In V. Kumar, A. K. Abbas, N. Fausto, S. L. Robbins, & R. S. Cotran (Eds.), Robbins and Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease (7th ed., p.638-649). Saunders Co. Philadelphia.
  20. Ugwuene, M. C. (2011). Effect of Dietary Palm Kernel Meal for Maize on the Haematological and Serum Chemistry of Broiler Turkey. Nigerian Journal of Animal Science, 13, 93-103
  21. Postgraduate Committee in Veterinary Sciences [PCVS] (1990, September 24-28). Rabbits & rodents laboratory animal science. Proceedings No.142., Postgraduate Committee in Veterinary Science, University of Sydney, Australia. Retrieved from http://openagricola.nal.
  22. Merck Manual (2012). Haematologic reference ranges. Mareck Veterinary Manual. Retrieved from
  23. Alagbe, J.O. (2017). Studies on growth performance, nutrient utilization and haematological characteristics of broiler chickens fed different levels of Azolla-Moringa olifera mixture. Greener Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 7(6):145-156.
  24. Alagbe, J.O., Omokore, E. A and Tijani, T.D. (2018). Effect of dietary supplementation of dried Spondias mombin Linn leaf on the performance and blood profile of broiler chickens. Pacific International Journal. 2(2):46-58.
  25. Burke, J. (1994). Clinical care and medicine of pet rabbit (p.49-77). Proceedings of the Michigan Veterinary Conference.
  26. Research Animal Resource [RAR]. (2009). Reference values for laboratory animals: Normal haematological values. RAR Websites, RAR, University of Minnesota. Retrieved from
  27. Schalm, O. W., Jain, N. C., & Carroll, E. J. (1975). Veterinity haematology (3rd ed., p.15-218). USA: Lea & Fabiger, Philadelphia
  28. Gboshe, P.N., Ebiloma, S.O., Shettima, I., Boyi, P.U and Netala, J. (2020). Haematological traits and serum biochemistry of grass cutters fed Elephant grass supplemented with concentrate. Animal and Veterinary Science, 8(1): 29-35.
  29. Altman, R.B (1979) Avian Clinical Pathology, Radiology, Parasitic and Infectious Diseases, Proceedings of Amer Amin Hosp Assoc South Bend, W.
  30. Alagbe, J.O. (2020). Performance, hematology and serum biochemical parameters of weaner rabbits fed different levels of fermented Lagenaria brevifora whole fruit extract. Advances in Research and Reviews, 2020, 1:5.
  31. Alagbe, J.O and Oluwafemi, R.A. (2019). Growth performance of weaner rabbits fed Noni (Morinda citrifolia) and Moringa olifera leaf mixture as partial replacement of soya bean meal. International Journal of Advanced Biological and Biomedical Research. 7(2): 185-195
  32. Omokore, E.O and Alagbe, J.O. (2019). Efficacy of dried Phyllantus amarus leaf meal as an herbal feed additive on the growth performance, haematology and serum biochemistry of growing rabbits. International Journal of Academic Research and Development. 4(3): 97-104.
  33. Duncan, D.B. (1955). Multiple range and multiple F-test. Biometrics 11(1):1-42
  34. Alagbe, J.O., Agubosi, O.C.P., Ajagbe, A.D, Shittu, M.D and Akintayo Balogun, O.M (2020). Performance, haematology and serum biochemical parameters of growing grass cutters fed Phyllantus amarus and Piliostigma thonningii leaf meal mixture as partial replacement for Soya bean meal. United International Journal for Research and Technology, 2(1): 14-23.
  35. Neffati, Mohamed; Najjaa, Hanen; Máthé, Ákos (2017). Medicinal and Aromatic Plants of the World - Africa. Springer. pp. 253–256. ISBN 978-94-024-1120-1.
  36. Olajumoke, O.O., Soretiwa, S.A and Lawrence, O.O. (2002). Phytochemical screening, anti-nutrient composition, proximate analysis and the antimicrobial activities of the aqueous and organic extracts of bark of Rauvolfia vomitoria and leaves of Peperomia pellucida. International Research Journal of Biochemistry and Bioinformatics, 2(6): 127-134.
  37. Olafadehan, O.A., Oluwafemi, R.A and Alagbe, J.O. (2020). Carcass quality, nutrient retention and caeca microbial population of broiler chicks administered Rolfe (Daniellia oliveri) leaf extract as an antibiotic alternative. Journal of Drug Discovery. 14(33):146-154
  38. Olafadehan, O.A., Oluwafemi, R.A and Alagbe, J.O. (2020). Performance, haemato-biochemical parameters of broiler chicks administered Rolfe (Daniellia oliveri) leaf extract as an antibiotic alternative. Advances in Research and Reviews, 2020, 1:4
  39. Akintayo Balogun Omolere. M and Alagbe, J.O (2020). Probiotics and medicinal plants in poultry nutrition: A review. United International Journal for Research and Technology, 2(1): 7-13.
  40. Shittu, M.D and Alagbe, J.O. (2020). Phyto-nutritional profiles of broom weed (Sida acuta) leaf extract. International Journal of Integrated Education. 3(11): 119-124
  41. Ibironke, A.A and Olusola, O.O. (2013). Chemical composition of ten medicinal plant seeds from South west Nigeria. Advances in Life Sciences and Technology, 10(1): 1-7.
  42. Oluwafemi, R.A., Egwuiyi. G.N and Alagbe, J.O. (2020). Effect of feeding Polylathia longifolia leaf meal as partial replacement of wheat offal. European Journal of Agricultural and Rural Education. 1(1), 8-16.
  43. Silva, T.D.O., Kreutz, L.C., Barcellos, L.J.G., Borella, J., Soso, A.B and Souza, C. (2005). Reference ranges for (Chinchilla laniger) blood cells and serum biochemical parameters. Cienc. Rural, 35:602-606. doi: 10.1590/S010384782005000300017.
  44. Melillo, A. (2007). Rabbit clinical pathology, J. Exot. Pet. Med. 16:135-145.
  45. Ӧzkan, C., Kaya, A and Akgul, Y. (2003). Normal values of haematological and some serum biochemical parameters in serum and urine of New Zealand white rabbits. World Rabbit Science, 20:253-259.
  46. Mohammed, Y.M., Shovon, S.B., Abida, S., Shukanta, B., Ashish, K.S., Shujit, C.P and Asaduz, Z. (2017). Evaluation of amino acid profile of Jack fruit seed and its utilization for the development of protein enriched supplementary food. J. Noakhali. Sci and Tech. Uni, 1(1): 77-78.
  47. Elango, R., Ball, R.O., Pencharz, P.B. (2009). Amino acid requirement in humans with special emphasis on the metabolic availability of amino acids. Amino Acids, 37:19-27.
  48. Dalle, Z., Celia, C and Szendro, Zs. (2016). Herbs and spices inclusions as feedstuff or additive in growing rabbits diets and as additive in rabbit meat: A review. Livestock Science, 189(16):82-90.
  49. Berreto, M.S.R., Menten, J.F.M., Racanicci, A.M.C., Pereira, P.W.Z and Razzo, P.V. (2008). Plants extracts used as growth promoters in broilers. Brazilian Journal of Poultry Science, 10(2): 109-115.
  50. Oetting, L.L. (2005). Extratos vegetais come promotores do crescimento de leitoes recem-desmamados [tese] Piracicaba (SP) Escola Superior de Agricultura “ Luiz de Queiroz”.
  51. Saad, M.S., Mohammad, A.M and Khalif, H. (2017). Some haemato-biochemical values in White New Zealand Rabbits. IOSR Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Science, 10(7): 40-44.
  52. Henry, A.J., Ozung, P.O and Udoh, P.I. (2017). Haematological profile and serum biochemical indices of weaned rabbits fed pawpaw leaves as supplements to Corn-Soya meal based diets. Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, 23 (17): 21-25.
  53. Ajayi, A and Raji, Y. (2012). Haematological and serum biochemical indices of prepubertal male rabbits fed with graded level of blood –wild sunflower forage meal mixture. African Journal of Biotechnology, 11(35):8730-8734.
  54. Pérez-Urria CE, Avalos García A. (2009). Metabolismo secundario de plantas. REDUCA. 2: 119-145.
  55. Cuin TA, Shabala S. (2007). Amino acids regulate salinityinduced potassium efflux in barley root epidermis. Planta. 225: 753-761
  56. Wu G. (2009). Amino acids: metabolism, functions, and nutrition. Amino Acids. 37: 1-17.
  57. Dioguardi FS. (2011). Clinical use of amino acids as dietary supplement: pros and cons. J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle 2011: 1-6.
  58. Vivanco JM, Cosio E, Loyola-Vargas VM, Flores HE. (2005). Mecanismos químicos de defensa en las plantas. Investigación y Ciencia . 341: 68-75.
  59. Vanisree M, Lee C-Y, Lo S-F, Nalawade SM, Lin CY, Tsay H-S. (2004). Studies on the production of some important secondary metabolites from medicinal plants by plant tissue cultures. Bot Bull Acad Sin. 45: 1-22.
  60. Vázquez-Ortiz FA, Caire G, Higuera-Ciapara I, Hernández G. (1995). High performance liquid chromatographic determination of free amino acids in shrimp. J Liq Chrom. 18: 2059-2068.
  61. AOAC. (1990). Official Methods of Analysis of Association of Official Analytical Chemists, 15th ed.; AOAC: Arlington, VA, 1990; methods 988.05.
  62. Akram M, Asif H, Uzair M, Akhtar N, Madni A, Shah SMA, ul Hasan Z, Ullah A. (2015).Amino acids: A review article. J Med Plants Res. 5: 3997-4000.
  63. Rhoads MJ, Wu G. Glutamine, arginine, and leucine signaling in the intestine. Amino Acids 2009; 37: 111- 122.
  64. Wang W, Qiao S, Li D. (2009). Amino acids and gut function. Amino Acids 37: 105-110
  65. Kundan Prasad (2017). HPLC Analysis of Amino Acid and Antioxidant Composition of Three Medicinal Plants of (Pithoragarh) Uttarakhand Himalayas. Journal of Analytical & Pharmaceutical Research. 6(5):00186.
  66. Abd-El-Hady, A.M. (2014). Performance, physiological parameters and slaughter characteristics in rabbits as affected by herbal feed additives. Agric. Food, 2:353-365.
  67. Agostini,P.S., Sola-Oriol, D., Nofrarias, M., Barroeta, A.C., Gasa, J., Mazanilla, F.G. (2012). Role of in feed clove supplementation on growth performance, intestinal microbiology and morphology in broiler chickens. Livestock Sci. 147: 113-118.
  68. Alcicek, A., Bozkurt, M and Cubuk, M. (2003). The effect of an essential oil combination derived from selected herbs growing wild in turkey performance. S.Afr. J. Ani. Sci. 33:89-94.
  69. Alcicek, A., Bozkurt, M and Cubuk, M. (2004). The effect of a mixture of herbal essential oil an organic acid or a probiotic on broiler performance. S.Afr. Anim. Sci. 34:217-222.
  70. Al-Turki, A. (2007). Antibacterial effect of thyme, peppermint, sage, black pepper and garlic hydrolysis against Bacillus subtilis and Salmonella. J. Food Agric. Environ. 5:92-94.
  71. Shah, M.A., Bosco, S.J.D and Mir, S.A. (2014). Plant extracts as natural antioxidants in meats and meats product. Meat Sci. 98:21-33.
  72. Placha, I., Chrastinova, I., Laukova, A., Cobanova, K., Takacova, V et al. (2013). Effect of thyme oil on small intestinal integrity and antioxidant status, phagocytic activity and G.I.T of rabbits. Acta. Vet. Hung. 61:197-208.
  73. Omer, H.A.A., Ibrahim, A.M., Abedo, A.A., Ali, F.A.F. (2012). Growth performance of rabbits fed diets containing different levels of energy and mixture of some medicinal plants. J.Agric. Sci. 4:201-212.
  74. Alagbe, J.O. (2017). Nutrient evaluation of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) fruit peel as a replacement for maize in the diets of weaner grass cutters. Scholarly Journal of Agricultural Science. 6(8):277-282