Main Article Content


This study was carried out to determine effect of dietary supplementation of melon (Citrallus lanatus) seed oil (WMO) on the growth performance and immune response of growing rabbits. Thirty six (36), 5-6 weeks weaner rabbit of mixed breed and sex with an average weight of 435 g – 438 grams were randomly divided into four (4) treatments of nine rabbits per group and each rabbit served as a replicate in a completely randomized design (CRD). The experiment lasted for 12 weeks and all other management practices were strictly observed. Basal diet was formulated according to the nutrient requirements of rabbit according to NRC (1977). Treatment (T1) were fed basal diet with 0 % WMO, T2, T3 and T4 were fed basal diet supplemented with WMO at 0.2 %, 0.4 % and 0.6 % respectively. Results obtained were used to examine the average daily weight gain (ADWG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), feed: gain, mortality, activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), reduced glutathione (GSH) and malonyldialdehyde (MLA). ADWG, feed: gain and mortality were significantly different (P˂0.05) among the treatments. ADFI increased as the level of WMO increases, though not at a significant level (P˃0.05). Highest mortality was recorded among animals in T1 (1.00 %), none was recorded in the other treatments (P˂0.05). Activities of SOD, GST, GSH and MLA were significantly (P˃0.05) influenced by WMO. It was concluded that dietary supplementation of WMO up to 0.6 % enhanced growth performance, improved feed: gain and had no negative effect on the antioxidant parameters of rabbits, it is safe and could be used to bridge the gap between food safety and production.


growth performance feed melon seeds rabbits

Article Details

How to Cite
Singh, A.S, Alagbe, J.O, Sharma, S, Oluwafemi, R.A, & Agubosi, O.C.P. (2021). Effect of Dietary Supplementation of Melon (Citrallus Lanatus) Seed Oil on the Growth Performance and Antioxidant Status of Growing Rabbits. International Journal on Orange Technologies, 3(3), 19-30.


  1. Lima P.J.D.O., Watanabe P.H., Cândido R.C., Ferreira A.C.S.,Veira A.V., Rodrigues B.B.V., Nascimento G.A.J., Freitas E.R. (2017). Dried brewers grains in growing rabbits: nutritional value and effects on performance. World Rabbit Sci. 2017, 25: 251-260.
  2. Adham A. AL-Sagheer, Gamal Abdel-Rahman, Mohamed S. Ayyat, Hassan A. Gabr & GIhan F. Elsisi. (2020). Productive performance response of growing rabbits to dietary protein reduction and supplementation of pyridoxine, protease, and zinc. An Acad Bras Cienc (2020) 92(3): e20180989 DOI 10.1590/0001-3765202020180989.
  3. Andrzej, G., Janusz, S and Dorota, K. (2019). Growth performance and meat composition of rabbits fed diets supplemented with silkworm pupae meal. Spanish Journal of Agricultural Science. 17(3) e0607.
  4. Alagbe, J.O and Akintayo-Balogun, O.M. (2020). Effects of dietary supplementation of Albizia lebbeck seed oil (ALO) on the fatty acid composition of weaner rabbits. Biochemistry and Biotechnology Research, 8(2): 29-33.
  5. Musa, B., Alagbe, J.O., Adegbite Motunrade Betty, Omokore, E.A. (2020). Growth performance, caeca microbial population and immune response of broiler chicks fed aqueous extract of Balanites aegyptiaca and Alchornea cordifolia stem bark mixture. United Journal for Research and Technology, 2(2):13-21.
  6. Omokore, E.O and Alagbe, J.O. (2019). Efficacy of dried Phyllantus amarus leaf meal as an herbal feed additive on the growth performance, haematology and serum biochemistry of growing rabbits. International Journal of Academic Research and Development. 4(3): 97-104.
  7. Alagbe, J.O. (2019). Performance and haemato-biochemical parameters of weaner rabbits fed diets supplemented with dried water melon (rind) meal. Journal of Dairy and Veterinary Sciences. 8(4):001-007.
  8. Alagbe, J.O and Omokore, E.A. (2019). Effect of replacing soya bean meal with Indigofera zollingeriana leaf meal on the performance and carcass characteristics of growing rabbits. International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research and Development. 6(5): 74-77.
  9. Pamela, C. C., Richard, A. H. and Denise, R. F. (2005). Lippincotts illustrated Reviews Biochemistry 3rd ed., Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia. 335- 388.
  10. Ojewuyi, O.B, Ajiboye, T. O, Adebanjo, E. O, Balogun, A, Mohammed, A.O. (2014). Proximate composition, phytochemical and mineral contents of young and mature Polyalthia longifolia Sonn.leaves. Fountain Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences: 2014; 3(1): 10 – 19.
  11. Niyi, A. (1997). Prospects of Commercial Rabbit Keeping in Nigeria Livestock Echo April- June Pp. 51-54.
  12. NRC, (1977) Nutrient Requirement of Domestic Animal, Nutrient Requirement of Rabbits. Second Edition National Academy of Science Washington D.C.
  13. Onwuka, G. I. (2005). Food Analysis and Instrumentation; Theory and Practice Naphthalic prints, Surulere, Lagos, Nigeria. 219- 230.
  14. Alagbe, J.O (2020). Chemical evaluation of proximate, vitamin and amino acid profile of leaf, stem bark and roots of Indigofera tinctoria. International Journal on Integrated Education. 3(10): 150-157.
  15. Alagbe, J.O (2020). Proximate, phytochemical and vitamin compositions of Prosopis africana stem bark. European Journal of Agricultural and Rural Education. 1(4): 1-7.
  16. Duncan, D.B. (1955). Multiple range and multiple F-test. Biometrics 11(1):1-42.
  17. National Research Council (1994). Nutrient requirement of poultry 9th Rev Edn, Washington D.C. National Academy Press.
  18. A.O.A.C (2000). Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Official Methods of Analysis 19th Edition Washington, D.C Pages 69-77.
  19. Alagbe, J.O., Shittu, M.D., Bamigboye, S.O and Oluwatobi, O.A. (2019). Proximate and mineral composition of Pentadiplandra brazzeana stem bark. Electronic Research Journal of Engineering, Computer and Applied Sciences. 1(2019):91-99.
  20. Vasudevan, M. D. and Sreekumari, S. (2007). Textbook of biochemistry for medical students. 5th Ed., Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd. New Delhi, India, pp. 283-287, 309-313,318-320, 322.
  21. Akpanyung, E. O. (2005). Proximate and mineral composition of bouillon cubes produced in Nigeria. Pak. J. Nut. 4 (5), 327-329.
  22. Adeyeye, E. and Otokili, M. K. (1999). Proximate composition and some nutritionally valuable minerals of two varieties of Capsicum annum (Bell and Cherry Peppers). Discov. Innov. 11: 75-81.
  23. Ryan, M. F. (1991). The role of magnesium in clinical biochemistry: an overview. Ann. Clin. Biochem. 28:19–26.
  24. Olaleye, M. T. (1997). The mineral elements proximate analysis, phytochemical screening and toxicants of vernonia amygelina (Etidot) and Marsdenia latifolia (Utasi)- unpublished, B. Sc. Project Biochemistry department, University of Uyo, Uyo.
  25. Alagbe, J.O. (2016). Effect of heavy metals contamination on performance, blood profile of broiler chicks fed Corn-soya diet. International Journal of Advanced Biological Research. 6(4): 538-542.
  26. Okwu, D. E. (2005). Phytochemical, Vitamins and Mineral Composition of two Nigeria Medicinal plants. International Journal of Molecular medicine and Advance sciences, 1(4):375- 381.
  27. Ishida, H., Suzuno, H, Sugiyama, N., Innami, S. Todokoro, T. and Maekawe, A. (2000). Nutritional evaluation of chemical component of leaves stalks an stem of sweet potatoes (Ipomea batata Poir). Food Chemistry, 68: 359-367.
  28. Olatunji, A.K., Alagbe, J.O and Hammed, M.A. (2016). Effects of varying levels of Moringa olifera leaf meal on performance and blood profile of weaner rabbits. International Journal of Science and Research. 5(6):803-806.
  29. Oluwafemi, R.A., Egwuiyi. G.N and Alagbe, J.O. (2020). Effect of feeding Polylathia longifolia leaf meal as partial replacement of wheat offal. European Journal of Agricultural and Rural Education. 1(1), 8-16.
  30. Alagbe, J.O and Oluwafemi, R.A. (2019). Growth performance of weaner rabbits fed Noni (Morinda citrifolia) and Moringa olifera leaf mixture as partial replacement of soya bean meal. International Journal of Advanced Biological and Biomedical Research. 7(2): 185-195.
  31. Olafadehan, O.A., Oluwafemi, R.A and Alagbe, J.O. (2020). Carcass quality, nutrient retention and caeca microbial population of broiler chicks administered Rolfe (Daniellia oliveri) leaf extract as an antibiotic alternative. Journal of Drug Discovery. 14(33):146-154.
  32. Olafadehan, O.A., Oluwafemi, R.A and Alagbe, J.O. (2020). Performance, haemato-biochemical parameters of broiler chicks administered Rolfe (Daniellia oliveri) leaf extract as an antibiotic alternative. Advances in Research and Reviews, 2020, 1:4.
  33. Mahipal, C., Ashok, K.P., Shalini, B., Narayan, D., Sunil, E.J and Kusumakar, S. (2015). Dietary supplementation of a novel pathogenic feed additive: effect on nutrient metabolism, antioxidant status and immune response of goats. Animal Production Science. 46: 540-550
  34. Singh, V.K., Pattanaik, A.K., Sharma, K and Saini, M. (2011). Effects of dietary energy intake on erythrocytic, antioxidant defense in growing lambs fed wheat straw based diets. Animal Production Science. 51:642-649.
  35. Alagbe, J.O., Agubosi, O.C.P., Ajagbe, A.D, Shittu, M.D and Akintayo Balogun, O.M (2020). Performance, haematology and serum biochemical parameters of growing grass cutters fed Phyllantus amarus and Piliostigma thonningii leaf meal mixture as partial replacement for Soya bean meal. United International Journal for Research and Technology, 2(1): 14-23.
  36. World Health Organization (1991). Guidelines for elemental concentrations. Journal of American Medicine, 23(3): 299-305,
  37. Maryam, K., Khalil, A and Abolghasem, J. (2015). Reliability of Malondialdehyde as a biomarker of oxidative stress in psychological disorders. Bioimpacts 5(3): 123-127.
  38. Edgar, F.M., Orlando, T.O., Geida, A.Y., Zamora, A., Norma, S.C., Jose,G.S.O and Jesus, R.R. (2014). Determination of Amino acids in medicinal plants from South Sonora, Mexico. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 13(4):601-606.
  39. Jacob, A.G., Etong, D. I and Tijjani, A. (2015). Proximate, mineral and anti-nutritional compositions of melom (Citrullus lanatus) seeds. British Journal of Research. 2(5): 142-151.
  40. Betty, T., Jacob, K.A., Faustina, D and Elsa, I.O. (2016). Water melon seeds as food: nutrient composition, phytochemicals and antioxidant activity. International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences. 5(2): 139-144.
  41. Oyeleke, G.O., Olagunju, E.O and Ojo, A. (2012). Functional and physicochemical properties of water melon seed and seed oil. IOSR Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2(2): 29-31.
  42. Ojieh, G.C., Oluba, O.M., Ogunlowo, Y.R and Orole, R.T. (2006). Comparative study on the chemical and functional properties of Citrullus linatus seed. The internet Journal of Nurtrition and Wellness. 6(1): 1-5.
  43. Taiwo, A.A., Agbotoba, M.O., Oyedepo, A., Shobo, O.A., Olawuni, M.O. (2008). Effects of drying methods on properties of water melon seed oil. AJFAND 8(4):492-501.
  44. Alagbe, J.O., Sharma, R., Eunice Abidemi Ojo, Shittu, M.D and Bello Kamoru Atanda (2020). Chemical evaluation of the proximate, minerals, vitamins and phytochemical analysis of Daniellia oliveri stem bark. International Journal of Biological, Physical and Chemical Studies, 2(1):16-22.
  45. Oluwafemi, R.A., Isiaka Olawale and Alagbe, J.O. (2020). Recent trends in the utilization of medicinal plants as growth promoters in poultry nutrition- A review. Research in: Agricultural and Veterinary Sciences. 4(1): 5-11.
  46. Alagbe, J.O. (2017). Effect of dietary inclusion of Polyalthia longifolia leaf meal as phytobiotic compared with antibiotics on the nutrient retention, immune response and serum biochemistry of broiler chicken. Greener Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 7(3):74-81.
  47. Alagbe, J.O. (2017). Performance, blood profile and carcass evaluation of growing grass cutters fed diets supplemented with matured Polyalthia longifolia leaf meal. Scholarly Journal of Agricultural Science. 7(2):44-49.
  48. Gilani, A.R. (2005). Trends in ethnopharmacology. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 100: 43-49.
  49. Miller, N.J and Larrea, M.B.R. (2002). Flavonoids and other plant phenols in the diets: their significance as antioxidants. Journal of Nutr. Environ. Med. 12: 39-51.
  50. Prakash, D and Gupta, K.R. (2009). The antioxidant phytochemicals of neutraceutical importance. The open Nutraceuticals Journal. 2:20-35.
  51. Dillard, C.J and German, J.B. (2000). Review phytochemicals: nutraceuticals and human health. Journal of Food Agric. 80:1744-1756.
  52. Anagnostopoulou, M.A., Kefalas, P., Papageorgiou, A.N., Assimopoulou, D. (2006). Radical scavenging activity of various extracts and fractions of sweet orange peel. Food Chem. 94:19-25.
  53. Prakash, D., Dhakarey, R and Mishra, A. (2004). Carotenoids: the phytochemicals of nutraceutical importance. Indian. J. Agric. Biochem. 17: 1-8.
  54. Teixeira FK, Menezes-Benavente L, Galvão VC, Margis-Pinheiro M. Multigene (2005). families encode the major enzymes of antioxidant metabolism in Eucalyptus grandis L. Genet Mol Biol. 28(3):529-538.
  55. Marí M, Morales A, Colell A, García-Ruiz C, Fernández-Checa JC. (2009). Mitochondrial glutathione, a key survival antioxidant. Antioxid Redox Signal. 11(11):2685-2700. doi: 10.1089/ARS.2009.2695.
  56. Filomeni G, Aquilano K, Civitareale, et al. (2005). Activation of c-Jun-N-terminal kinase is required for apoptosis triggered by glutathione disulfide in neuroblastoma cells. Free Radic Biol Med. 39(3):345-354.
  57. Marí Marí M, Morales A, Colell A, García-Ruiz C, Fernández-Checa JC. (2009). Mitochondrial glutathione, a key survival antioxidant. Antioxid Redox Signal. 11(11):2685-2700. doi: 10.1089/ARS.2009.2695.
  58. Julius M, Lang CA, Gleiberman L, Harburg E, DiFranceisco W, Schork A. (1994). Glutathione and morbidity in a community-based sample of elderly. J Clin Epidemiol. 47(9):1021-1026.
  59. Barja G, Herrero A. Oxidative damage to mitochondrial DNA is inversely related to maximum life span in the heart and brain of mammals. FASEB J. 2000;14(2):312-318
  60. Pompella A, Emdin M, Franzini M, Paolicchi A. (2009). Serum gamma-glutamyltransferase: linking together environmental pollution, redox equilibria and progression of atherosclerosis? Clin Chem Lab Med. 47(12):1583-1584.
  61. Allen J, Bradley RD. (2011). Effects of oral glutathione supplementation on systemic oxidative stress biomarkers in human volunteers. J Altern Complement Med. 17(9):827-833.
  62. Kern JK, Geier DA, Adams JB, Garver CR, Audhya T, Geier MR. A (2011). clinical trial of glutathione supplementation in autism spectrum disorders. Med Sci Monit. 17(12):CR677-CR682.
  63. Arosio E, De Marchi S, Zannoni M, Prior M, Lechi A. (2002). Effect of glutathione infusion on leg arterial circulation, cutaneous microcirculation, and pain-free walking distance in patients with peripheral obstructive arterial disease: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Mayo Clin Proc. 77(8):754-759.
  64. Hernandez JA, Escobar C, Creissen G, Mullineaux P. (2004). Role of hydrogen peroxide and the redox state of ascorbate in the induction of antioxidant enzymes in pea leaves under excess light stress. Functional Plant Biology. 31:359-368
  65. Gill SS, Tuteja N. (2010). Reactive oxygen species and antioxidant machinery in abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry. 48:909-930.
  66. Hasanuzzaman M, Hossain MA, daSilva JAT, Fujita M. (2012). Plant responses and tolerance to abiotic oxidative stress: Antioxidant defense is a key factor. In: Bandi V, Shanker AK, Shanker C, Mandapaka M, editors. Crop Stress and its Management: Perspectives and Strategies. Berlin: Springer; 2012. pp. 261-316
  67. Fridovich I. (1975). Superoxide dismutase. Annual Review of Biochemistry. 44:147-159.
  68. Jackson CA, Moore AL, Halliwell B, Foyer CH, Hall DO. (1978).Subcellular localization and identification of superoxide dismutase in the leaves of higher plants. European Journal of Biochemistry. 91:339-344.
  69. Lawal, W.B, Makinde, O.T., Obiageli, V., Nnajiofor, B., Ngozi, B and Abu, O.A. (2010). Organ weight, haematology and histopathology of albino rats fed soya bean meal with or without supplementing with mannanase. Proceedings 35th Conference Nigeria Society of Animal Production, 14th – 17th March, 2010. University of Ibadan, 98-100.
  70. Onyekwere, M.U., Olabode, A.D., Okechukwu, S.O and Iheukmere, F.C. (2010). Effect of feeding boiled bambara nut waste on performance, haematology and serum biochemistry of weaned rabbits. Proceedings 33rd Conference of Nigerian Society of Animal Production, 14-17th March, 2010, University of Ibadan. Pp. 203.
  71. Aduku, O.A and Olukosi, J.O. (1990). Rabbit production in the tropics. Abuja, Nigeria. Global Union Publications.