Main Article Content


Over-the-counter (OTC) medicines, also known as nonprescription medicines, refer to medications that can be purchased without a prescription and are safe and effective when used according to the directions on the label, and as directed by a healthcare professional (Food and Drug Admini, 2018).1 Self-medication is becoming increasingly popular around the world. According to studies, the global prevalence of self-medication ranges from 11.2 to 93.7%, depending on the target population and country (Balbuena et al., 2009;2 Kasulkar and Gupta, 2015; 3 Arrais et al., 2016; 4 Håkonsen et al., 2016;5 Prado et al., 2016; 6 Gama and Secoli, 2017; 7 Helal and Abou-ElWafa, 2017; 8 Abdi et al., 2018;9 Kassie et al., 2018; 10 Lei et al., 2018; 11 Tesfamariam et al., 2019). 12 This means a large proportion of the world’s population uses drugs without first consulting a doctor or healthcare professional.

Countries differ with regards to where nonprescription medicines to be sol d. In many countries, they are restricted to pharmacies, even though in some of these countries a pharmacist is not always present. In others, some medicines are restricted to pharmacies while others may be sold outside of pharmacy. In still others, such as the United States, all non-prescription medicine sold in any outlet. The reasoning is that if it is safe enough to be used in self-medication, the labeling is adequate to assure safe and effective use in culture where the pharmacist has a long tradition of a monopoly on medicines, such as in majority of the countries of the European Union (EU), all medicines are restricted to sale in a pharmacy.


Marketing Medicine for Self-Medication

Article Details

How to Cite
Haider, D. R. (2022). Marketing Medicines for Self-Medication, Is it a Good or Bad Idea. International Journal on Economics, Finance and Sustainable Development, 4(6), 78-82. Retrieved from


  1. 1. U.S. Food and Drug Administration (2018). Understanding Over-the-counter Medicines. Available from: (Accessed May 15, 2021).
  2. 2. Balbuena, F. R., Aranda, A. B., and Figueras, A. (2009). Self-Medication in Older Urban Mexicans. Drugs & Aging 26 (1), 51–60. doi:10.2165/0002512-200926010-00004
  3. 3. Kasulkar, A., and Gupta, M. (2015). Self Medication Practices Among Medical Students of a Private Institute. Indian J. Pharm. Sci. 77 (2), 178–182. doi:10.4103/0250-474x.156569
  4. 4. Arrais, P. S., Fernandes, M. E., Pizzol, T. D., Ramos, L. R., Mengue, S. S., Luiza, V. L., et al. (2016). Prevalence of Self-Medication in Brazil and Associated Factors. Revista de saude publica 50 (Suppl. 2), 13s. doi:10.1590/s1518-8787.2016050006117
  5. 5. Håkonsen, H., Sundell, K. A., Martinsson, J., and Hedenrud, T. (2016). Consumer Preferences for Over-the-counter Drug Retailers in the Reregulated Swedish Pharmacy Market. Health Policy 120 (3), 327–333. doi:10.1016/j.healthpol.2016.01.016
  6. 6. Prado, M. A. M. B. d., Francisco, P. M. S. B., Bastos, T. F., and Barros, M. B. d. A. (2016). Uso de medicamentos prescritos e automedicação em homens. Rev. Bras. Epidemiol. 19 (3), 594–608. doi:10.1590/1980-5497201600030010
  7. 7. Gama, A. S. M., and Secoli, S. R. (2017). Self-medication Among Nursing Students in the State of Amazonas - Brazil. Rev. Gaucha Enferm 38 (1), e65111. doi:10.1590/1983-1447.2017.01.6511
  8. 8. Helal, R. M., and Abou-ElWafa, H. S. (2017). Self-Medication in University Students from the City of Mansoura, Egypt. J. Environ. Public Health 2017, 9145193. doi:10.1155/2017/914519
  9. 9. Abdi, A., Faraji, A., Dehghan, F., and Khatony, A. (2018). Prevalence of Self-Medication Practice Among Health Sciences Students in Kermanshah, Iran. BMC Pharmacol. Toxicol. 19 (1), 36. doi:10.1186/s40360-018-0231-4
  10. 10. Kassie, A. D., Bifftu, B. B., and Mekonnen, H. S. (2018). Self-medication Practice and Associated Factors Among Adult Household Members in Meket District, Northeast Ethiopia, 2017. BMC Pharmacol. Toxicol. 19 (1), 15. doi:10.1186/s40360-018-0205-6
  11. 11. Lei, X., Jiang, H., Liu, C., Ferrier, A., and Mugavin, J. (2018). Self-Medication Practice and Associated Factors Among Residents in Wuhan, China. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 15 (1). doi:10.3390/ijerph15010068
  12. 12. Tesfamariam, S., Anand, I. S., Kaleab, G., Berhane, S., Woldai, B., Habte, E., et al. (2019). Self-medication with over the Counter Drugs, Prevalence of Risky Practice and its Associated Factors in Pharmacy Outlets of Asmara, Eritrea. BMC Public Health 19 (1), 159. doi:10.1186/s12889-019-6470-5
  13. 13. Alma-Ata 1978, Primary Health Care. Report of the International Conference on Primary Health Care, Alma-Ata, USSR, September 6-12, 1978, Geneva, World Health Organization 1978.
  14. 14. World Health Organization Guidelines for developing national drug policies, Geneva, World Health Organization 1988.
  15. 15. Reinstein J, World-wide Studies on self-medication what do they show? Swiss Pharma 1991:13 (11a) 21-5.
  16. 16. Nakajima H, WFPMM 9th General Assembly Keynote Address, Swiss Pharma 1989:11(11a) 14-6.
  17. 17. Taylor Nelson Research, Information or Communication, A Consumer Study of Television Advertising, London. Taylor Nelson Research 1990.
  18. 18. Kepplinger HM. How far can advertising be used to inform? Swiss Pharma 1990:12(5a) 73-77.
  19. 19. Official Journal of the European Communities. No. L 113/8. 30-04-92 Council Directive 92/27/EEC of 31 March 1992. On the Labeling of medicinal products for human use and on package leaflets.