Main Article Content
The study was to find out the extent to which cultural practices amongst Mbororos affects the implementation of policies for universal primary education in the Mbororo community of the North West Region of Cameroon”. This study was guided by the Bourdieu’s theory of cultural capital. The target population was 3500, and sample was 308 respondents, Snow ball, purposive and convenience sampling technique was used, questionnaire and interview guide was used to collect data, and data were analyzed using thematic content analysis, frequencies, proportions and chi-square. The results indicated that: There is a significant influence of culture, religion on the implementation of UPE. lack of finance, family support, early marriages, inadequate school facilities, nomadic life style, poor infrastructure, cultural values like drum beating, isolated settlement, limited Islamic schools, high illiteracy, are some of the factors that hinder the implementation of UPE in the Mbororo Community of the North-West region of Cameroon. The study recommends that Ardors or chiefs should be sensitized to disseminate educational talks to their local communities. The content of the curriculum should be relevant to Mbororo children, should also responds to cultural diversity. Parents and the entire community should be schooled on the importance of education to both the child and the community in general. Suggestions were made for this study to be replicated in the North -West Region of Cameroon using a larger sample.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
In submitting the manuscript to the International Journal on Integrated Education (IJIE), the authors certify that:
- They are authorized by their co-authors to enter into these arrangements.
- The work described has not been formally published before, except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture, review, thesis, or overlay journal.
- That it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere,
- The publication has been approved by the author(s) and by responsible authorities – tacitly or explicitly – of the institutes where the work has been carried out.
- They secure the right to reproduce any material that has already been published or copyrighted elsewhere.
- They agree to the following license and copyright agreement.
License and Copyright Agreement
Authors who publish with International Journal on Integrated Education (IJIE) agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the International Journal on Integrated Education (IJIE) right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0) that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors can enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the International Journal on Integrated Education (IJIE) published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or edit it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) before and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.
- 1. Abubaka, K. (2005). Educating the mbororo child With none-muslems.(Monograph).
- 2. Adamu, I.S. (2005). The Education of the Mbororo Girl. MBOSCUDA Report, Bamenda: Maryland
- 3. Aeisatu, B. (2012). Mbororo Pastoralist, Cameroon. Bamenda: Unique Printers.
- 4. Aletum, T.M. (2008). Introduction to General Sociology. Yaounde: GRAPHICAM, African Development Fund (2009). Cameroon Strategy Paper 2010-2014.
- 5. Amine, M.E. (1999). Trends in the demand for primary education in Cameroon. Boston: UPA, Inc.
- 6. Akubue, F.N., & Okolo, A.N. (2008). Sociology of Education. Nsukka: REAT AP EXPRESS
- 7. Andersen, J. et al (1994). “The contribution of poverty 3 to the understanding of poverty, exclusion and integration” in poverty 3: The Lesson of the Poverty 3 Programme, European Economic Interest Group, Animation and Research, Lille.
- 8. Bategeka, L., and Okurut, N. (2004). Financing Primary Education for All: Uganda, Institute of Development Studies, and University of Sussex.
- 9. Bessis, S. (1995). From Social Exclusion to social cohesion: A poverty Agenda, joint: (MOST) UNESCO, ILO, WHO.Commission of the European Communities (DG XII), ORSTOM, University of Roskilde.
- 10. Bhalla, A. and Lapeyre, F. (1997). “Social exclusion: towards an analytical and operational framework” Development and Change, 28 (3): 413-433.
- 11. Brock, N.B, & Cammish, B. (1997). Factors Affecting Female Participation in Education in seven developing countries-Education Research Paper No: 09, 1993, 96 p.
- 12. Bruce, S., & Edward L., Glaeser, C. (2001). Education and Religion. Journal of national bureau of economic research 1050 Massachusetts: Cambridge, Ma 02138
- 13. Buzzle, C. (2009). Equity Theory. Available from: http://www.buzzle.com./Editorial/6-24-100325.asp (Accessed June 2014).
- 14. Constitution of the Republic of Cameroon.Available from: http// www.picam.org/cameroon.../Cameroon%20Constitution%20of%201996..(Acc essed June, 2014).
- 15. Cameroon Vision 2035. Available from http//www.web.worldbank.org› Countries › Africa › Cameroon › Overview (July 12th, 20014).
- 16. CAMSU (2005). Studies in Cameroon. Educational policy in Cameroon available at http://www.camsu.de//61.0html. (Accessed June 2014).
- 17. Castells, M. (1996). The Rise of Network Society. Oxford: Blackwell.
- 18. Chatham House (2005) Workshop on Palestinian Refugees in Lebanon: Summary of Main Issues, Conclusions and Recommendations, Limasol / Cyprus, 17-18 September 2005.
- 19. Conteh, C. (2011). Policy Implementation in Multilevel Environments. Canadian Public Administration journal Vol.54.p 121-142,.
- 20. Centre for Social Empowerment of the Open University (2008).The Empowerment of Marginalised Communities: Role of Open Distance Learning in India.
- 21. Collier, R., & Lipton, M. (1977). Why Poor People Stay Poor. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
- 22. Cooksey, B. (1993). Parents’ Attitudes Towards Education in Rural Tanzania, TADREG, Report No 5, Dar es Salaam
- 23. Stasavage, D. (2005). The role of democracy in Uganda’s move to universal primary education. Journal of Modern African Studies. Vol.43, 1 pp. 53–73. Cambridge University Press.
- 24. EFA (2000). Education For All, meeting our collective commitments. The Dakar Framework for Action. World Education Forum, Dakar, Senegal.
- 25. EFA. (2000) Statistical Document: World Education Forum, International Consultative Forum on Education For All.
- 26. Emma, B. (2011). Life on the Edge: the Mbororo of Cameroon. Available at http//www. justice-dignity.net/home/mbororo/ (Retrieve June 23th, 2014).
- 27. Fonkeng, E. G. (2006). The history of education in Cameroon. New York: Edwin Mellen Press, Lewiston.
- 28. Fonkeng, E. G. (2005). Strategies to reduce repetition in Cameroon primary schools. Available at http// www.saga.cornell.edu/saga/educconf/fonkeng.pdf (Retrieve July, 2014).
- 29. Fonkeng, G, E., & Ntembe, A. N. (2009). Higher education and economic development in Africa: the case of Cameroon. Available at http//www.academicjournals.org/journal/ERR/article-abstract/C10647C4086 (Retrieve September 6, 2014).
- 30. Foucault, M. (1977). Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison. London: Penguin Books.
- 31. Foucault, M. (1982). “The Subject and Power” Pp. 208-226. In H.L. Dreyfus and P. Rabinow. Michel Foucault: Beyond Structuralism and Hermeneutics, 2nd Edition. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
- 32. Gordon, D., et al. (2000). Poverty and social exclusion in Britain, New York: Joseph Row tree Foundation
- 33. Graig, J. E. (1987). Implementing Educational Policies in Sub-Saharan Africa; A Review of the Literature. (Discussion Paper) The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank, Washington , D.C.
- 34. Hilary, S. (1994). Social Exclusion and Social Solidarity. International Labour Review 133, nos. 5-6: 531-78.
- 35. Hills, Le Grand & Piachaud, D. (2002). Understanding Social Exclusion. Oxford University Press.
- 36. Hok-Bunku, et al. (2005). The Education of South Asian Ethnic Minority in Hong Kong. Available at http//www.apss.polyu.edu.hk/sscsps/download.php? file...pdf (Retrieve Octerber 10th, 2014).
- 37. Ismail, I. (2004). Nomadic education & education of nomadic Fulani. Available at http//www.gamj.Com/Fulani 7.htm. (Retrieved, June 2014).
- 38. Joshua, P, (2009). Mbororo culture and religion. Available at http://Joshua+project.net (Accessed on June, 2010).
- 39. Juuko, F.W & Kabonesa ,C. (2007).Universal Primary Education in Contemporary Uganda: Right or Privilage? Kampala: University Press.
- 40. Justinian, C. J & Galabawa, F. (2001). Developments and Issues Regarding Universal Primary Education in Tanzania.Fromhttp www.adeanet.org/adeaPortal/adea/ biennial/.../en_arusha_galabawa.pdf (Accessed September, 2014).
- 41. Kaneko, M. (2012). Universal primary education: historical and theoretical perspectives. From http//www.ide.go.jp/English/Publish/Download/Report/.../2005_04_15.html (Access July 6th, 2014).
- 42. Levitas, R. (2000) .What is Social Exclusion? In D. Gordon and P. Townsend (eds) Breadline. From http//housingforall.org/Social_exclusion.pdf (Access September 6th, 2014).
- 43. Lewis,A. et al. (1987). Introduction to Sociology (2nd ed), New York: Harcourt Bruce Jovanovich publishers.
- 44. Liesbet, S., & Baudienville, G. (2010). What drives donor financing of basic education? London: Overseas Development Institute.
- 45. Mac Ojong,T.T. (2008). Philosophical and historical foundations of education in Cameroon, 1844-1960. Limbe: Design House.
- 46. MBOSCUDA (2005). The History of the Mbororo Fulani. Available at http//www.mboscuda.org/index.php?...mbororo...mbororofulani... (Access June 4th, 2014).
- 47. MBOSCUDA (2014). The Culture of the Mbororo Fulani.Available at http//www.thinkafricapress.com/.../mbororo-fulani-pastoralists-striving mainta...(Access June 4th, 2014).
- 48. Michaela, P. (2008). Mbororo Claims to Regional Citizenship and Minority Status in North West Cameroon-Africa: The journal of the international African institute-volume Vol. 78, (4) pp.540-560. Edinburg University press.
- 49. Miller, B. (2007). Cultural Anthropology. (4th ed). New York: Design and production services Inc.
- 50. Mishkin, N et al. (2014). The Economics of Money and Financial Markets, 10th edition: Pearson Education Limited.P. 68. ISBN 978-0273765738. Ndeezi, A. (2000). Universal Primary Education in Uganda. EENET
- 51. Njeuma, D. L, et al .(1999). Reforming a national system of higher education: the case of Cameroon. ADEA working group on higher education.
- 52. Nsamenang, A. B. (1992). Human development in cultural context: a third world perspective. Newbury Park, CA: Sage
- 53. Psacharopoulos, A, et al. (1985). Education for development: an analysis of investment choices. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
- 54. Salah, M. E & Zani, A. P. (2014). Factors affecting the implementation of universal primary education in semi arid areas in Kenya: the case of garissa country. From: http//www.tijoss.com/TIJOSS%2020th%20Volume/7Salah.pdf (Access October 7th, 2014).
- 55. Saunders, P. (2003) .Can social exclusion provide a new framework for measuring poverty? Social Policy Research Centre Discussion Paper No. 127,
- 56. Robert, E.P. (1937). Cultural conflict and the marginal man. From http//www.soclabo.org/index.php/laboratorium/article/view/4/119 (Access August 25th, 2014).
- 57. Tambo, I. L. (2000). Cameroon National Education Policy Since the 1995 Forum. From http//books.google.cm/books?isbn=0798303123.. (Access May 4th, 2014).
- 58. Tchombe, T.M. (1999). Scientific Psychology in Cameroon. Journal of psychology In Africa, 1,1-24. From http//www.africabib.org/query_p.php?pe= !J00000082!& SR=3&PG=2 (Access June 2nd, 2014).
- 59. Tchombe, T. M. (2000). Growth and development of teacher education in Cameroon. In Ndongko, T. M. & Tambo, L. I. (Eds.) Educational Development in Cameroon 1961 1999: Issues and Perspectives. Nkemnji Global Tech, Platteville.
- 60. Tchombe, T. M. (2001). Structural Reforms in Education in Cameroon. http://www.unifr.ch/ipg/ecodoc/conferences/DocuPDF Conf Inter/Tchombe.pdf (Access June, 2014).
- 61. Tchombe, T. M. (2006) Sciences of education: A necessary conceptual base for educational practices in cultural context. In Tchombe, T. M. & Fonkoua, P. (Eds.) Professionalisation et formation des enseignments au Cameroun. Les Cahiers de terroires 01, 51-75.
- 62. Tchombe, T. M. S. (1997). Teacher Education & Development in Cameroon. From http//www.thehdrc.org/Handbook%20of%20African%20Educational%20The... (Access July, 2014).
- 63. The Millennium Development Goals Report (2013). Global Out of school Children. From:http//www.un.org/millenniumgoals/.../report-2013/mdg-report-2013 english. p...(Access July, 2014).
- 64. United Nations (2008). The United Nations Today. United Nations Department of Public Information.
- 65. UNESCO. (2008). Net Enrollment Rate in primary education. Education For All Monitoring Report. From http// www.cfr.org/education/education- all...monitoring-report-2008-unesco/p (Access July, 2014).
- 66. UNICEF. (2009). All children everywhere: A strategy for basic education and gender equality. From http//www.uis.unesco.org/.../global-initiative-out-of-school- children-educatio...(Access July, 2014).
- 67. UNESCO. (2013). A conceptual frame work & basis for Action; Geneva. UNESCO Journal. From http//www.globalization101.org › Featured (Access July, 2014).
- 68. UNESCO. (2013). Institute for Statistics Out of School Children.From http//www.uis.unesco.org › Home › Education (Access July, 2014).
- 69. World Bank. (1995). Priorities and Strategies for Education- A World Bank Review. Washington D.C: World Bank.
- 70. Willis, P. (1983). Cultural production and theories of reproduction. London: Race, Class and Education