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This paper discussed secondary education as well as governments’ rationale for its establishment. The paper also discussed assessment and the various strategies for the assessment of teaching-learning processes at the level. Moreover, the paper discussed evaluation of teaching and learning, and the strategies that could be employed in executing evaluation in schools, with explicit key differences between assessment and evaluation highlighted. In all, the paper concluded that assessment and evaluation are vital procedures for boosting teaching and learning activities in secondary schools in Nigeria; and suggested that assessment and evaluation strategies be enshrined in the secondary school curriculum, teachers be regularly trained and re-trained in the art of assessment and evaluation; government and education ministries should provide the needed tools and instruments for implementing assessment and evaluation of the teaching-learning processes, and education inspectors should frequently visit secondary schools as to ascertain teachers’ level of compliance with government policies on assessment and evaluation.
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