Main Article Content
The current research investigated the COVID-19 is spread vigorously in China, USA, France, Italy, Germany, and European countries and Iran Pakistan being as a neighbor country of china & IranOne was for the incoming Pakistani from various countries, such as Iran, China, Afghanistan, and India. The other was arranged inside various hospitals for COVID-19 positive cases. As hundreds and thousands of Pakistani were in Iran for religious purposes, they were. Most of the students and businessmen, inside China, were not allowed to come back. Handling of large scale influx from Iran was the main problem. Out of the total COVID-19 cases, 78 percent of cases were reported from visitors coming from Iran. Pakistan announced the closure of all schools, colleges & universities with a partial lockdown across the country for major cities.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
In submitting the manuscript to the International Journal on Integrated Education (IJIE), the authors certify that:
- They are authorized by their co-authors to enter into these arrangements.
- The work described has not been formally published before, except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture, review, thesis, or overlay journal.
- That it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere,
- The publication has been approved by the author(s) and by responsible authorities – tacitly or explicitly – of the institutes where the work has been carried out.
- They secure the right to reproduce any material that has already been published or copyrighted elsewhere.
- They agree to the following license and copyright agreement.
License and Copyright Agreement
Authors who publish with International Journal on Integrated Education (IJIE) agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the International Journal on Integrated Education (IJIE) right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0) that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors can enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the International Journal on Integrated Education (IJIE) published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or edit it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) before and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.
- European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control data. Geographical distribution of 2019- nCov cases. Available online: (https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/en/geographical-distribution-2019-ncov-cases) (accessed on 05 February 2020)
- World Health Organization, 2019- nCoV Situation Report-22 on 12 February 2020. https://www.who.int/docs/default- source/coronavirus/situation-reports/
- Gralinski L, Menachery V. Return of the Coronavirus: 2019- nCoV, Viruses 2020;12:135. [CrossRef ]
- Chen Z, Zhang W, Lu Y, et al. From SARS-CoV to Wuhan 2019- nCoV Outbreak: Similarity of Early Epidemic and Prediction of Future Trends: Cell Press 2020. [CrossRef ]
- Luk HK, Li X, Fung J, Lau SK, Woo PC. Molecular epidemiology, evolution, and phylogeny of SARS coronavirus. Infection, Genetics and Evolution 2019;71:21–30. [CrossRef ]
- Coronavirinae in ViralZone. Available online: https://viralzone. expasy.org/785 (accessed on 05 February 2019).
- Subissi L, Posthuma CC, Collet A, Zevenhoven-Dobbe JC, Gorbalenya AE, Decroly E, et al. One severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus protein complex integrates processive RNA polymerase and exonuclease activities. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2014;111:E3900–E3909. [CrossRef ]
- Lambeir AM, Durinx C, Scharpe S, De Meester I. Dipeptidyl- peptidase IV from bench to bedside: An update on structural properties, functions, and clinical aspects of the enzyme DPP IV. Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci 2003;40:209–94. [CrossRef ]
- Chu H, Zhou J, Wong BH, Li C, Cheng ZS, Lin X, et al. Productive replication of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus in monocyte-derived dendritic cells modulates the innate immune response. Virology 2014;454–455:197–205. [CrossRef ]
- Zhou J, Chu H, Li C, Wong BH, Cheng ZS, Poon VK, et al. Active replication of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus and aberrant induction of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in human macrophages: Implications for pathogenesis. J Infect Dis 2014;209:1331–42. [CrossRef ]
- Hamre D, Procknow JJ. A new virus isolated from the human respiratory tract. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 1966;121:190–3. [CrossRef ]
- Hui DS, Azhar EI, Madani TA, Ntoumi F, Kock R, Dar O, et al. The continuing 2019-nCoV epidemic threat of novel coronaviruses to global health -The latest 2019 novel coronavirus outbreak in Wuhan, China. Int J Infect Dis 2020;264–6. [CrossRef ]
- Holshue ML, DeBolt C, Lindquist S, Lofy KH, Wiesman J, Bruce H, et al. First Case of 2019 Novel Coronavirus in the United States The New England Journal of Medicine 2020. [CrossRef ]
- WHO. Emergencies preparedness, response. Pneumonia of unknown origin – China. Disease outbreak news. Available online: https:// HYPERLINK "http://www.who.int/csr/don/12- January-2020-novel-coronavirus-china/en/" www.who.int/ csr/don/12-January-2020-novel-coronavirus-china/en/ (accessed on 05 February 2020)
- Rothe C, Schunk M, Sothmann P, Bretzel G, Froeschl G, Wallrauch C, et al. Transmission of 2019-nCoV Infection from an Asymptomatic Contact in Germany, 30.01.2020. [CrossRef ]
- Chen N, Zhou M, Dong X, Qu J, Gong F, Han Y, et al. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 99 cases of 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a descriptive study. Lancet 2020, published online Jan 29, https://doi.org/10.1016/ S0140-6736(20)30211-7.
- Huang C, Wang Y, Li X, et al. Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. Lancet 2020; published online Jan 24. HYPERLINK "https://doi. org/10.1016/S01406736(20)301835" https://doi.org/10.1016/
- Zhu N, Zhang D, Wang W, et al. A novel coronavirus from patients with pneumonia in China, 2019. N England J Medicine, Publish online Jan 29. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa2001017 [CrossRef ]
- Wang C, Horby PW, Harden FG, Gao GF. A novel coronavirüs outbreak of global health concern. Lancet 2020, publish on- lined Jan 24, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30185-9.
- Arabi YM, Alothman A, Balkhy, et al. Treatment of the Middle East respiratory syndrome with a combination of lopinavir-ritonavir and interferon-β1b (MIRACLE trial): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials 2016;19;81. [CrossRef ]
- Warren TK, et al. Therapeutic efficacy of the small molecule GS-5734 against Ebola virus in rhesus monkeys. Nature2016;531:381–5. [CrossRef ]
- Jordan PC, et al. Initiation, extension, and termination ofRNA synthesis by a paramyxovirus polymerase. PLoSPathog 2018;14:e1006889. [CrossRef ]
- Cockrell AS, et al. A mouse model for MERS coronavirus- induced acute respiratory distress syndrome. Nat. Microbiol 2016;2:16226. [CrossRef ]
- Brown AJ, et al. Broad-spectrum antiviral remdesivir inhibit- its human endemic and zoonotic deltacoronaviruses with a highly divergent RNA dependent RNA polymerase. Antivir Res 2019;169:104541. [CrossRef ]
- 2019 Novel Coronavirus.Prevention and Treatment. Available online: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/about/ prevention-treatment.html (accessed on 05 February 2020)
- What to do if you are sick with 2019 Novel Coronavirus. Available online:https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/ about/steps-when-sick.html (accessed on 05 February 2020)
- Shen M.; Peng Z.; Xiao.; Zhang L. Modelling the epidemic trend of the 2019 novel coronavirus outbreak in China.